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Carbon dating is based on assumptions

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However, as an increasing number of carbon dates were obtained, including many on objects of known age, it became clear that the assumption was not strictly true. This sssumptions has been known to the scientific community for several decades and correction factors have been developed to adjust for the fact that the production rate of carbon in the atmosphere has not been completely constant over the past few thousand years. In other words, modern radiocarbon dating uses a calibration method to correct for the problem that Major views as a critical weakness of the method.

But curiously, even though these correction methods have been in use for several decades, Major fails to discuss them. It seems clear that he did not study the method well enough to be aware of the use of these correction and calibration methods. The fact that the raw uncorrected dates must be corrected for the less than perfect equilibrium in no way invalidates the method. To use an analogy, if you had a yardstick that was only 34 inches long rather than 36, it would still be usable, provided that you knew the details of its imperfection. To me, an interesting question is why did Trevor Major make such an elementary mistake? He is obviously an intelligent man and according to his writing, he has a masters degree in science.

Why is his writing on this subject so substandard? Although my opinion is only a guess, let me suggest some reasons. The first reason may be that because of his religious beliefs, he relied too heavily on previous creationist authors who, in many cases, are not competent scientists.

I have previously noted that 6 out of 11 of his references are creationist references. Another reason is the natural tendency of anyone to avoid looking at information that conflicts with strongly held beliefs. Creationists are not the only ones who have this characteristic, but they seem more prone to this failure than most people. They assume, often without good evidence, that authors who Carbon dating is based on assumptions with them Naked peruvian chicks more likely to be accurate than those of mainstream science. In my experience, this is a risky assumption, since creationist writers are often mistaken in their claims.

Creationists often incorrectly claim that thermodynamics is a problem for evolution. For a discussion of that topic, see our web page on thermodynamics. The following link discusses the way in which Bert Thompson and Apologetics Press discuss Carboniferous Footprints For a demonstration of how "quote-mining" works in creationist circles, see the following link on evolution of a creationist quote. If you wish to write to the author of this page, send your email to: Notice in the first diagram below that eight different isotopes of Carbon is illustrated. Three of the Carbon isotopes C12, C13, and C14 are found in nature.

To the left side of each C C is the symbol for Carbon are two numbers, the bottom number indicates the Atomic Number or the number of protons in the nucleus. Since all the atoms are Carbon, they should all have an Atomic Number of 6. The top number is the Mass Number for each Isotope. The Mass Number for any Isotope is the addition of all the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Remember that the Atomic Number the bottom number indicates the number of protons. So simple arithmetic should tell us the number of neutrons. Carbon 9 has 3 neutrons. Carbon 10 would have 4 neutrons and Carbon 11 would have 5 neutrons, and so on.

What should catch your attention is the nature of the various Carbon Isotopes. Only two of the Carbon Isotopes are stable C12 and C All the other Carbon Isotopes are unstable and they degrade into something else. Notice that the farther away the Mass Number gets fromthe faster they break down The blue numbers indicate half-lives, the time it takes for one half of the atoms in a sample to break down. So the farther the Carbon is from the norm, the more unstable it is. C9, C10, and C11 have too few neutrons so when they breakdown, they release a positron which effectively turns a proton into a neutron.

The opposite occurs with C14, C15, and C They have too many neutrons so they breakdown, releasing a beta particle which effectively converts a neutron into a proton. Thus the breakdown of radioactive atoms is a self-corrective process; those Isotopes which have too many neutrons loose a neutron in the beta decay, and those Isotopes which have too few neutrons gain a neutron in the positron decay. Looking specifically at Carbon 14, The reaction box to the right we see that it is a Beta emitter with a half life of years. When Carbon 14 emits a beta particle, the Carbon 14 atom becomes a Nitrogen 14 Atom. Looking at the Mass Number and Atomic Number of the atoms we see that the atom has lost a neutron and gained a proton.

Also you will see that the Mass and Atomic Numbers in the equation are equal on both sides of the equation. Since half-life has been introduced, lets explore it a little. Radioactive atoms are unstable so they decay into a something else. The rate that atoms decay or break down is not constant. The rate changes and it is dependent on how many radioactive atoms are in a sample. If all radioactive atoms have the same chance of breaking down we might expect that the more atoms present, the more atoms would be breaking down at any one time. This is exactly what happens.

However something interesting happens.

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